In 1943, American psychologist Abraham Maslow published a paper in a journal Psychological review Its name is “Theory of Human Motivation”. In the paper, Maslow posited that human behavior operates on a hierarchy of physical and psychological needs. After the research, Maslow soon introduced the theory of “Hierarchy of Needs”, in which he identified the five needs that formed the basic basis of human behaviour.
At a time when models of human development were only designed to explain human desires, Maslow stood out with a model that emphasized societal needs first and then focused on individual emotions. Needs in Maslow’s theory of the hierarchy of needs are generally represented by a hierarchy where basic needs are at the base. According to Maslow, an individual can move forward only after the basic needs of each level are satisfied.
From the lowest levels, let us understand the five basic needs according to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory.
Five levels of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
1. Psychological needs
Psychological needs are the basic things that are required for the survival of an individual. These include:
- clothing and shelter
- reproduction, etc.
2. Safety needs
Safety needs occupy the second level in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Humans keep safety at the core of their lives and have been drawn to safer environments since childhood. Basic safety needs include:
- protection from violence and theft,
- financial security,
- emotional and mental well-being,
- health security, etc.
3. Love and belonging needs
The third level in the hierarchy of needs belongs to human interaction. At this level, the individual is driven by a need for emotional relationships and a sense of belonging. Some of the things that meet these needs are:
- family relationships,
- Romantic attachments
- social and community groups,
- religious gatherings, etc.
This level marks the end of basic needs.
4. Needs assessment
Higher needs start at the fourth level. Estimation needs are divided into two parts. The first part of recognition depends on the recognition one receives from others. The other part is based on a more personal level of self-evaluation.
5. Self-actualization needs
The needs for self-actualization occupy the highest level in this pyramid. It refers to the realization of one’s full potential as a person and being viewed differently by every other person. Maslow believed that self-actualization was a rare event, and only greats like Albert Einstein could do it.
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Criticisms of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow’s theory has influenced fields both inside and outside psychology. The field of education and business has been greatly influenced by the hierarchy of needs theory. However, this was not without criticism. The main objections against the theory include:
- Human needs have no hierarchy: Many researchers, including those from Baruch Universitythey claimed that there was little evidence for Maslow’s categorization of needs and even less that it was of a hierarchical nature.
- Hard to test the theory: Another criticism of needs theory comes from the fact that certain terms such as self-actualization are difficult to test scientifically.
The foundation of Maslow’s theory of needs states that human behavior is driven by needs. Furthermore, if our basic needs are not being met, we may not be able to move forward in life. This could explain the feeling of being stuck and unmotivated that most of us feel at some point in our lives. It is possible that in all of these moments when we feel unmotivated, some of our needs are not being met or met. If you are lacking in motivation, here are some of them Practical ways to deal with your situation and get out of it effectively.
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